Z – N

The Ziegler–Nichols tuning method is a heuristic method of tuning a PID controller. It was developed by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols. It is performed by setting the I (integral) and D (derivative) gains to zero. The “P” (proportional) gain, is then increased (from zero) until it reaches the ultimate gain , at which the output of the control loop oscillates with a constant amplitude. and the oscillation period are used to set the P, I, and D gains depending on the type of controller used:

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