horizontal

In geometry, physics, astronomy, geography, and related sciences, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field at that point— in other words, if apparent gravity makes a plumb bob hang perpendicular to the plane at that point. Alternatively, a spirit level, which exploits the buoyancy of a bubble, can be used to determine if the plane is horizontal. In radio science, horizontal plane is used to plot an antenna’s relative field strength in relation to the ground (which directly affects a station’s coverage area) on a polar graph. Normally the maximum of 1.000 or 0 dB is at the top, which is labeled 0o, running clockwise back around to the top at 360°. Other field strengths are expressed as a decimal less than 1.000, a percentage less than 100%, or decibels less than 0 dB. If the graph is of an actual or proposed installation, rotation is applied so that the top is 0o true north. See also the perpendicular vertical plane. In general, something that is horizontal can be drawn from left to right (or right to left), such as the x-axis in the Cartesian coordinate system.

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